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  • 文章網 » 美文 » 經典美文 » 中國王朝與農民起義之間的聯系

    中國王朝與農民起義之間的聯系

    中國是世界四大文明古國之一,也是現僅存的文明古國,連續性五千年的文化傳播,在亞洲東方形成了中國文明為代表的文化圈,這是我們的驕傲和自豪。在這五千多年中,遼闊的中華大地上王朝更替、各路英雄上演著各自的角色,有貴族豪強的乘機起兵反叛,有不堪迫害的農民的起義,總之他們都有著同一個目的,成為這片土地的新主人。

    公元前2070年夏朝的建立,中國開始了王朝統治,夏朝到夏桀時期,被商部落取代,建立商朝,商朝帝辛(紂王)時期,被周所取代,他們之間的取代都是以新貴族(新統治階層)取代舊貴族(舊統治階層)的形式進行,他們的統治方式并沒有很大的改變,只是新統治階層開始往往比舊統治階層在統治的手段溫柔,已取得諸侯們的支持。到了西周厲王時期,爆發了中國歷史上第一次農民起義運動——國人暴動,可這次暴動只是周朝鎬京的一次小范圍的暴動,沒有改變西周的統治的模式。到了周幽王時期,周朝在諸侯中已沒有往日的權威,其統治疆域充其量不過是一個中等諸侯國,平王東遷之后,周朝更只是一具空殼子,各諸侯開始相互攻伐,誰都想取代周而成為天下之主,由于實力原因,在春秋戰國的五百年間都沒有成功,只有秦國最后將其毀滅。

    秦國于公元前221年大敗其他對手統一中國,然而在秦始皇死后才兩年就爆發了陳勝吳廣起義,陳勝吳廣失敗之后,劉邦和項羽開始緊跟腳步,其中劉邦最初的起義模式是農民起義,但他后來歸并于楚懷王的領導下,雖然說是名義性的領導,也是說明他是以楚國舊皇族的名義進行的對秦作戰,劉邦失去了農民起義的根本目的,變成了新興的貴族集團,秦國的覆滅可以說是東方六國新舊貴族集團不滿秦國的統治,對秦國展開的毀滅戰爭,并最終取得了勝利。至于之后的楚漢戰爭,只是兩人對帝國的統治權,所展開的一個新舊貴族的較量,之后劉邦以新貴族戰勝舊貴族而告終。

    漢朝建立之后經歷四百多年,在次期間經歷過王莽、赤眉、綠林農民起義,他們只是沉重打擊了帝國的統治,當并未打斷王朝的延續,在已劉秀、劉寅、劉玄為代表的貴族代表給平息。漢帝國晚期,帝國在黃巾農民起義軍的浪潮下,各地豪強紛紛起兵,黃巾撲滅之后形成了割據的局面,漢帝國最終也在這場亂世中被曹魏代替,而后漢帝國之后的曹魏被晉國代替,晉國中期的八王之亂后又五胡亂華,導致晉國偏安一隅,南北朝正式開始,造成上面這種局面的并非是農民起義的浪潮所致,而是貴族集團間的交替,都是以貴族集團為核心取代舊王朝的戰爭。南北朝時期也爆發過農民起義,如北魏葛榮、劉舉、蓋吳等起義,但是他們并沒有滅亡其統治,只能說動搖其統治基礎,真正讓其致命一擊的是內部貴族的反叛。最后形成了新的政權,如北朝的東西魏國、北周、北齊,和南方的晉、宋、齊、梁、陳。

    公元581年隋朝建立,589年滅陳正式一統天下,經歷了前期的輝煌,后期在隋煬帝統治之后,帝國走向衰敗,新的農民起義浪潮開始席卷全國,農民起義的浪潮沉重打擊了隨帝國的統治基礎,但沒有滅亡隋王朝。導致隋王朝的致命一擊同樣是帝國內部的反叛,各地帝國的貴族為核心代表的高級官員紛紛自立,對農民起義軍即為拉攏也同時也加以絞殺,最終以李淵為代表的唐王朝勝利了。唐朝統治維持百年后,同樣開始出現內部的反叛而且是致命的,唐王朝漸漸走下下坡,反叛在唐王朝的統治后期有如走馬觀花,接連不斷,在唐嬉宗爆發黃巢起義,黃巢起義最終被唐王朝的貴族集團所絞殺,可唐王朝在不到二十年后就被反叛貴族的脅迫下,走下了歷史舞臺。

    到了五代十國時期到宋代,中原各國都是以唐朝時期的反叛貴族或其繼任者的角色進入歷史舞臺,同樣也是這些貴族反復爭奪著統治權,可以看出,中國王朝的更替基本上呈現成這樣的一個規律:王朝內部的強勢的貴族不滿足于現狀,等到王朝統治階層的貴族階段出現衰退時就加以取代,成為王朝的新代理人,或許在王朝統治時期出現過農民起義,尤其在統治末期爆發大規模起義,但只是沉重打擊了其王朝的統治基礎,并沒有將王朝徹底消滅,真正將其滅亡的往往是其王朝內部貴族的反叛。

    到了宋代之后,宋王朝的滅亡的規律發生了一絲變動,中原王朝的統治首次被北方民族完全侵占,可以說宋王朝是外界打擊下滅亡的,但這次戰爭也促成了中原內部原本的女真、黨項、宋朝統治的漢人又一次民族融合,成就了新的漢族。雖然我們的教科書中敘述明元朝是被明朝滅亡的,對于這種看法我并不認同,元朝退出中原之后,在北方還有自己統治權,后期也是由于內部貴族的反叛分裂成為瓦喇和韃靼。元之后的明代末年的情形也呈現這樣規律,如教課書上說元朝滅亡的描述那樣,對于明朝滅于李自成之手我也是不認同的,李自成、張獻宗領導的農民起義,實際上并沒有消滅明朝,只是如同晉代跟宋代情形相似,在北方占據,還是不穩定的統治,明代還牢牢掌握南方的統治權。明王朝真正毀滅者應該是清王朝,直至1662年康熙二年朱由榔被殺為止。至于清代更是如此,從乾隆中期開始有王倫起義、白蓮教、天理教、瑤族起義、太平天國,回人起義等,這些都沒有滅亡清王朝,如同上訴規律一樣,雖未導致滅亡,卻深深動搖其統治基礎,很多人覺得是以孫中山為首的國民黨滅亡了清朝,其實是清朝內部的強勢貴族滅完了清王朝,進而想取代清王朝……

    中國五千年的封建王朝,可以說除了明代是以農民起義最為成功的一個王朝,他建立起了二百多年的大明帝國,可建立之后,明王朝統治者就以統治貴族的身份開始指責農民起義,也說明了舊時農民起義的局限性,明王朝統治者領導其農民起義的目的性從最初的反抗性到后來的鎮壓對抗性。除此漢朝劉邦也是這種如此,最初是以農民起義的身份出現,但最后卻是以新興貴族的身份參加了爭奪天下的戰爭,可以說其身份發生了改變,性質也發生了改變。

    中國的朝代更替很大方面就是貴族權貴之間的爭奪戰,這種狀況實際上到了現在的國民黨時期也沒有發生改變,真正使其發生改變應屬國共戰爭,以共產黨的取勝而告終,舊時代的農民運動在中國五千多年的歷史上呈現出一幅波浪壯闊的歷史畫卷,其作用是不可估量的,沉重打擊王朝的統治基礎,為促進新老王朝的更替做出了不可磨滅的作用。

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